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"Production" is generally what teachers evaluate to assess student learning and application of their learning This traditionally includes: quizzes, tests, and essays. This can also include class participation, oral work, and projects.

Modern tools have expanded exponentially the opportunities for production, and therefore, expanded the opportunities for more realistic assessment of student learning. Moreover, the nature of "new tools"—when viewed from new perspectives—can dramatically change what we ask students to do with their learning.

In the recent past, student expression of knowledge has been limited primarily to what they write and speak. Today's students have dozens of tools to expand their ability to express their learning, such as the use of photography, movies, and more simple image and audio-rich multimedia products.

The nature of the end product has also shifted given the ease of constant editing. The past "completed paper" has given way to dynamic writing where change can occur at anytime. Consider a webpage product. Is a webpage ever truly complete? The notion of "completeness" can be irrelevant if we so desire. Student work can be treated as a constant state of change and improvement.

On the other hand, student end-products can now take on a permanency and an audience that was never before possible. Meaningful student work no longer needs to be produced "for the teacher," rather under the guidance of a progressive teacher, much of student work can—and should—live on to provide meaning beyond the immediacy of the classroom. More on this later.

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